The report focuses on a number of large and representative urban areas where air pollution has been a concern. These urban areas are large and densely populated and have all witnessed a rapid social - economic development in recent years, which have led to considerable pressures on the environment. These urban areas include (1) special urban areas: Hanoi Capital and Ho Chi Minh city; (2) a number of typical class I urban areas: Hai Phong, Hue, Da Nang; (3) a number of typical class II urban areas: Thai Nguyen, Ha Long, Viet Tri, Bien Hoa, Nha Trang.The DPSIR (Driving forces - Pressures - States - Impacts - Responses) concept has been applied in the report and the urban air indicators used in the report are organised in accordance with this concept. Thus, indicators used for the state section include those on ambient air quality such as concentrations of TSP, PM10 , NO2, CO2, SO2 and Pb in the ambient air and noise. Indicators used for the driving forces section include those on population growth and the development in transportation, industry, energy and construction. Indicators used for the pressures section include those on emissions and TSP, PM10 , NO2, CO2, SO2 and others from transportation, industry, construction and the residential sector (due to data deficiency, information on emissions from outside Vietnam is not analysed in this report). Indicators used for the impacts section include those on the number of people whose health is affected by air pollution, on impacts of pollution on the environment, on impacts on economic development and climate change impacts. The indicators used for the responses section include those on mitigation activities, policies, legislation, environmental management organisation, education and training, and international cooperation activities. The indicators used in the report are developed by the Environment Information and Reporting (EIR) project.
The report is based on the most updated information available (2005, 2006 and partly 2007) as well as on data time series covering the period 2002-2007. The information has been made available by the relevant agencies and compiled from official sources.
The report has 6 chapters:
+ Chapter 1. Natural and social-economic conditions and impacts on Vietnam air environment
+ Chapter 2. Sources of urban air pollution
+ Chapter 3. Air quality in urban areas
+ Chapter 4. Impacts of air pollution
+ Chapter 5. Achievements and challenges in urban air quality management
+ Chapter 6. Urban air environment protection measures.